Sands of Time Title
This site provides detailed information on the sand dunes of the Sefton coast in North West England
Home Page
Coastal Change
A History
  Physical Forces
Growth & Erosion
Future Change
Managing Change
Primary Succession
Model of Succession
The Strand Line
Embryo Dunes
Mobile Dunes
Blow Outs
Semi-fixed Dunes
Fixed Dunes
Dune Slacks
Dune Heath
Vegetation/Soil Data
Studying Succession
Pine Plantations
Project Objectives
Project Partners
Project Funding
Related Links
Primary Succession on the Sefton Coast

Coastal sand dunes provide an excellent environment for the study of primary succession. The vegetated dunes within the system have developed on a substrate of unconsolidated sand.


This sand has been picked up by the wind from the wide sandy foreshore at low tide and deposited at the top of the beach around any obstacle which interrupts the flow of the wind and reduces its energy - it may be tidal litter on the strand line or a plant.


On the Sefton Coast the sand is rich in particles of basic minerals such as calcium carbonate and the substrate therefore has a very high pH.

Tidal debris and strandline at Birkdale
Tidal debris and strand line at Birkdale beach,
Sefton Coast (1999)

On another page in this section is a 'Model of Dry Dune Succession' that summarises common pathways for succession on the dunes of the Sefton Coast. This model can be used to access further information on the processes involved in primary succession.

For more information about this project email at Liverpool Hope University.
  Go to the site of Liverpool Hope University    

Liverpool Hope University worked with English Nature and the
Sefton Coast Partnership to implement the Sands of Time project.